Our projectional radiography simulator is an interactive learning environment for diagnostic radiography that enables educators to bridge the disconnects between theory and practice by using a virtual X-ray room and virtual patients, avoiding any radiation risk. The tool can be used within a lecture to illustrate cases of interest, specific errors, the effect of the X-ray machine parameters, etc., that would have been difficult (if not impossible) to encounter during the training due to the harmful nature of ionizing radiations. It also includes a fast and accurate character animation technique. This technique allows the user to import any kind of anatomic model, move the joints of the virtual patient into the required position, and deform the skin surface and the internal soft tissues accordingly. Our software relies on VirtualXRay, an open-source library, to simulate X-rays projection and generate the corresponding radiographs in real-time. The parameters of the X-ray machine (such as beam collimation or beam spectrum) can be dynamically changed by the user, and the effects of these changes are visualized without delay.
The research leading to these results has been partially funding by the following entities: the Spanish Government [Cajal Blue Brain Project, Spanish partner of the Blue Brain Project initiative from EPFL; and grants TIN2017-83132-C2-1-R and FPU15/05747] and European Commission [under grant agreements: HBP - Human Brain Project - FET Flagship HBP604102; RaSimAS: Regional Anaesthesia Simulator and Assistant - FP7-ICT 610425, and Fly4PET: Fly Algorithm in PET Reconstruction for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning - FP7-PEOPLE-2012-CIG 321968]. Some examples were based on the Visible Human male data set (National Library of Medicine) and the Segmented Inner Organs (Voxel-Man). We would like to thanks HPC Wales for the use of its supercomputer during the validation of gVirtualXRay and NVIDIA for donating the GPU that was used during the implementation of gVirtualXRay.